PMID: Eur J Cancer. 2013 Jul ;49(10):2411-23. Epub 2013 Apr 3. PMID: 23562551 Abstract Title: Diabetes mellitus as an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between diabetes mellitus and the risk of lung cancer. To determine whether diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies.METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for observational studies conducted prior to September 2012. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks and case-control studies that showed odds ratios in the analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated with a random effects model. Sensitivity analysis was performed with studies which controlled for smoking status. Associations were assessed in several subgroups representing different participant and study characteristics.RESULTS: A total of 34 studies from 24 manuscripts (10 case-control studies and 24 cohort studies) were included in the analyses. Diabetes was significantly associated with the increased risk of lung cancer compared with non-diabetic controls when limiting the analysis to studies adjusting for smoking status (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20; I(2)=46.1%). By contrast, this association disappeared when the analysis was restricted to studies not adjusting for smoking status (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11; I(2)=96.7%). When stratifying by sex, an increased risk of lung cancer was prominent in diabetic women (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20; I(2)=0%), while there was no association in diabetic men (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28; I(2)=96.6%). Among diabetic women, significantly increased risks of lung cancer were found in the following subgroups: cohort studies (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20; I(2)=0%), studies controlling for major confounding variables such as age, smoking and alcohol (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.43; I(2)=23.1%), studies with long-term follow-up (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20; I(2)=0%), and high-quality studies assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20; I(2)=0%).INTERPRETATION: Preexisting diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of lung cancer, especially among female diabetic patients. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to test specifically the effect of diabetes mellitus on lung cancer risk.
PMID: J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Aug 6. Epub 2015 Aug 6. PMID: 26247507 Abstract Title: Effects of long-term administration of aspartame on biochemical indices, lipid profile and redox status of cellular system of male rats. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) (ASP) is a synthetic sweetener used in foods and its safety remains controversial. The study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term administration of aspartame on redox status, lipid profile and biochemical indices in tissues of male Wistar rats.METHODS: Rats were assigned into four groups and given distilled water (control), aspartame at doses of 15 mg/kg (ASP 1), 35 mg/kg (ASP 2) and 70 mg/kg (ASP 3) daily by oral gavage for consecutive 9 weeks.RESULTS: Administration of ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the weight of liver and brain, and relative weight of liver of rats. Lipid peroxidation products significantly increased in the kidney, liver and brain of rats at all doses of ASP with concomitant depletion of antioxidant parameters, viz. glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Furthermore, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of gamma glutamyl transferase by 70% and 85%; alanine aminotransferase by 66% and 117%; aspartate aminotransferase by 21% and 48%; urea by 72% and 58% and conjugated bilirubin by 63% and 64%, respectively. Also, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the rats. Histological findings showed that ASP 2 and ASP 3 caused cyto-architectural changes such as degeneration, monocytes infiltration and necrotic lesions in brain, kidney and liver of rats.CONCLUSIONS: Aspartame may induce redox and lipid imbalance in rats via mechanism that involves oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione-dependent system.
PMID: Cell Biochem Funct. 2014 Oct ;32(7):612-9. Epub 2014 Sep 3. PMID: 25187240 Abstract Title: Oxidative stress and cannabinoid receptor expression in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas following treatment withΔ⁹-THC. Abstract: The objectives of study were (a) to determine alteration of feeding, glucose level and oxidative stress and (b) to investigate expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas treated withΔ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Δ(9)-THC, diabetes and diabetes + Δ(9)-THC groups. Diabetic rats were treated with a single dose of nicotinamide (85 mg/kg) 15 min before injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Δ(9)-THC was administered intraperitoneally at 3 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Body weights and blood glucose level of rats in all groups were measured on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On day 15 after the Δ(9)-THC injections, pancreatic tissues were removed. Blood glucose levels and body weights of diabetic rats treatedwith Δ(9)-THC did not show statistically significant changes when compared with the diabetic animals on days 7, 14 and 21. Treatment with Δ(9)-THC significantly increased pancreas glutathione levels, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in diabetes compared with non-treatment diabetes group. The cannabinoid 1 receptor was found in islets, whereas the cannabinoid 2 receptor was found in pancreatic ducts. Their localization in cells was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. We can suggest that Δ(9) -THC may be an important agent for the treatment of oxidative damages induced by diabetes. However, it must be supported with anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Furthermore, the present study for the first time emphasizes that Δ(9)-THC may improve pancreatic cells via cannabinoid receptors in diabetes. The aim of present study was to elucidate the effects of Δ(9)-THC, a natural cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors, and oxidative stress statue in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas. Results demonstrate that the cannabinoid receptors are presented in both Langerhans islets and duct regions. The curative effects of Δ(9)-THC can be occurred via activation of cannabinoid receptors in diabetic rat pancreas. Moreover, it may provide a protective effect against oxidative damage induced by diabetes. Thus, it is suggested that Δ(9)-THC can be a candidate for therapeutic alternatives of diabetes symptoms.
PMID: Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(6):8948-8957. Epub 2015 Jun 15. PMID: 26309547 Abstract Title: Curcumin inhibits lung cancer invasion and metastasis by attenuating GLUT1/MT1-MMP/MMP2 pathway. Abstract: Glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 is found highly expressed in malignant tumors and considered a mediator inducing cancer metastasis. Curcumin is a natural product which exerts anti-invasion and metastasis effects in cancer. This study aimed at evaluating whether attenuating GLUT1 was involved in curcumin’s anti-invasion and metastasis effects. In the in vitro part, constricted pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 vector was transfected into A549 cells. MTT assay was used to assess the curcumin’s effects on proliferation in lung cancer A549 cells. Transwell assay was used to evaluate the anti-invasion effect of curcumin on A549 cells. Real-time PCR and Western-blotting were employed to examine the expression levels of GLUT1, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 in curcumin- incubated A549 cells. In the in vivo part, tumor weight and metastatic rate were assessed in nude mice bearing untransfected, empty vector transfected and pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells originated tumors. In this study, we found that curcumin began to show significant cytotoxicity against proliferation effect at 45μmol/L. Curcumin inhibited invasion and expressions of GLUT1, MT1-MMP and MMP2 untransfected A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells exhibited resistance to curcumin’s anti-invasion effect by up-regulating expressions of GLUT2, MT1-MMP and MMP2. Furthermore, curcumin failed to decrease the metastatic rate in nude mice bearing pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells originated tumors. These results suggested that curcumin inhibit lung cancer invasion and metastasis by attenuating GLUT1/MT1-MMP/MMP2 pathway.
PMID: Z Naturforsch C. 2014 Mar-Apr;69(3-4):110-6. PMID: 24873031 Abstract Title: Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam. Abstract: The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
PMID: Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014 Mar ;4(2):127-36. PMID: 25050310 Abstract Title: Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically.RESULTS: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.
This article by Jim West was first published in The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, June 2000, then republished as a 2nd edition in 2002 by The Weston A. Price Foundation, with additional material and the editorship of Sally Fallon. The article summarizes his book, “DDT/Polio”, which he had attempted to publish in 1998. This is a 3rd edition, August 14, 2015.
What is the connection between pesticides and polio? Research shows a correlation between the use of DDT production and incidence of polio.